How many chemicals in cigarettes?

Cigarettes can look harmless but they contain over 4,000 chemicals. Out of these 4,000 chemicals, at least 50 are known carcinogens (cause cancer in human hosts such as TSANs) and are poisonous which can cause serious health problems.
Cigarettes are one of few products which can be sold legally in most countries which can harm and even kill you over time if used as intended.
A small list of some dangerous chemicals in cigarettes:
(embalming fluid)
    • A colorless liquid which is very poisonous and is used to preserve dead bodies. It chemical can be found in cigarette smoke.
    • It is known to cause cancer, respiratory, skin and gastrointestinal problems.
(petrol additive)
    • A transparent hydrocarbon acquired from coal and petroleum. It is used as a solvent in fuel and in chemical manufacture.
    • Benzene is contained in cigarette smoke.
(toilet cleaner)
    • Ammonia is used as a flavoring. When a tobacco is lit it frees nicotine turning it into a gas.
    • Frequently found in dry cleaning fluids.
    • Chemical solvent used as nail polish remover.
    • Found inside cigarette smoke.
    • Substance which can be inhaled into your lungs through smoking.
(insecticide/addictive drug)
    • Nicotine is a very addictive substance.
    • It is a powerful and fast-acting medical and non-medical poison.
    • This is the chemical which causes addiction (which is why smokers are addicted to smoking).
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
(car exhaust fumes)
    • Carbon monoxide is an odorless, tasteless and poisonous gas which is very fatal in large amounts.
    • The same gas that comes out of car exhausts.
    • The main gas found when a cigarette lit.
    • Arsenic is chemical which is used as rat poisoning.
Hydrogen Cyanide
    • Hydrogen cyanide is used in gas chamber poison.

Three main ways smoking hurts your lungs

The Cilia
When smokers inhales smoke into their lungs, the smoke will first pass through the esophagus and windpipe. The smoke passes through the upper airways and over the cilia. Cilia are tiny hairs that are in the upper airway. There job is to protect the lungs from infection by moving mucus out of the lungs. As smoke continuously passes through the cilia, it eventually damages them to the point that they can no longer more move. Once the cilia can no longer move then mucus will mix with damaging toxins that gets clogged up in the lungs. This cause the smoker to have a bigger chance of getting lung cancer or COPD.

COPD - stands for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease, it is the most common lung disease that makes it difficult to breath there are two main forms of COPD:
  • Chronic bronchitis, which involves a long-term cough with mucus
  • Emphysema, which involves destruction of the lungs over time
most people with COPD have a combination of both of the symptoms

The Alveoli
When smoke continues to enter through the lungs, it is divided left and right lung and then divided into the smallest passages of the lungs known as the alveoli. The alveoli are the final branching of the respiratory system, they are the air sacs that transport oxygen into the blood. Over time, smoking causes the alveoli to become less elastic. When the alveoli lose their elasticity it makes it more difficult for them to absorb oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs. This cause the smokers to have short breath.
Lung Elasticity
Smoking can also destroy the elastic recoil of your lungs which causes the smoker to have difficulty breathing out. Difficulty in breathing out leads to extra carbon dioxide in the lungs which eventually that fills up the lungs with carbon dioxide. The damage of the elastic recoil of the lungs can lead to emphysema.

Make a table to show what is harmed & how it is harmed for nicotine, carbo monoxide and tar

What is harmed?
How is it harmed?
Nicotine harms mostly the brain, heart and lung.
Nicotine is a highly addictive organic compound found in the leaves of tobacco plants. When nicotine enters the body, it directly affects the lungs through the blood stream. When nicotine enters the bloodstream, the blood pressure increases and the arteries throughout the body become more narrow. This limits the amount of blood that can be circulated through the body. When there is limited amount of blood, limited amount of oxygen the lungs can circulate in the blood to keep the body healthy which will affect heart.
Na young is awesome
Nicotine affects the brain by mimicking neurotransmitters, chemical messengers which allow the brain cells to communicate to one another. Every neurotransmitter has a specific design that fits with a receptor on another nerve cell. When the neurotransmitter locks into the receptor site, it activates the nerve cell and carries the message to the nest cell.
Nicotine mainly mimics two neurotransmitters called acetylcholine and dopamine. Acetylcholine is responsible for breathing, heart rate, muscle movement, and cognition. Nicotine increases the activity of these receptor sites which is why many smokers feel an increase of energy or an increase in ability to concentrate directly after smoking a cigarette. Dopamine is responsible for feeling pleasure; it is designed to release a good feeling every time you do something that benefits the body. This reinforces the mind to want to repeat the action at a later time. The nicotine in tobacco products creates this same pleasurable feeling, reinforcing the need to continue smoking or using other tobacco products.
Carbon Monoxide
Being exposed to a low concentrations of CO can cause headache, flu-like symptoms, nausea, exhaustion, fast breathing, and confusion. Being exposed to a high concentrations of CO can cause coma (unconsciousness) and death.
When carbon monoxide is in the body, it takes the place of oxygen in the blood and removes the heart, brain and other vital organs of oxygen.
Lungs and tissues in the body.
The tar is a substance that is found in tobacco cigarettes. It is a major cause of lung cancer, emphysema and bronchitis. The toxins from the tar causes damage to the lung cells that keep tumors from forming. It does this by causing the cells to uncontrollably divide. Tar also damages the cilia in the lungs, which protect the lining of the lungs. Tar also causes the discoloring of teeth, tar can cause periodontitis, a gum disease that can result in the loss of teeth.

Explain how smoking causes bronchitis and emphysema

Explain how smoking causes bronchitis:
When you inhale, small hairs near the opening of the nostrils filter out airborne particles. Sometimes small bits slip through, which then becomes attached to the mucus membrane which has tiny hair like structures called cilia on its surface. When smoking, smoke from the cigarettes gets through the cilia, the smoke then causes illnesses like bronchitis. Bronchitis is an illness with cause and inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes (the airways that connect to the windpipe to the lung). This delicate mucus manufacturing lining shields and defends the respiratory system. When a person has bronchitis, it is harder for air to pass in and out of the lungs. The tissues become irritated and more mucus is produced which cause of the most common symptom of bronchitis which is coughing.

Explain how smoking causes emphysema:
When cigarette smoke is inhaled deeply into the lungs, it leaves behind deposits of chemicals from the tobacco. These chemicals attack the air sacs which are called alveoli. When they are attacked they lose their elasticity and shape. When the air sacs are damaged they have a harder time splitting the oxygen up from the carbon dioxide in the smoker’s body system. This then cause the lung to simply refuse to inflate or deflate correctly which causes the smoker to have short breath and can only take very shallow breaths.

Why are smokers more likely to develop lung infections than non-smokers?

Lung cancer is 10 times more likely in a smoker than a non-smoker. The toxins make your phagocytes go crazy, and then you add some bacteria or a virus which makes your body over work as it is trying to defend itself. The toxins are more abundant so your body attacks them first, leaving the virus or bacteria to grow unattended. This is why infections in smokers last longer. The longer you smoke, the less your body cares about the substances that enter your lungs. It starts to not fight the illnesses, toxins, and growths until the tissue begins to die. After being covered in tar, chemicals, poisons, and other toxins, your body is then not able to transfer that units that are necessary to fight the infections. Not only do you clog up your lungs by smoking, you also kill the cells and, over time, the blood vessels follow. Osmosis and the transfer of cells through membranes only works if the membrane is in good condition, otherwise you either let to much through, or none at all.

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